Welcome to the home of To run function --> this is a sample overview page from the eyepathologist. Com. much will viagra cost patent expires Register for free at the site for complete access to all pages and all features. Disease hole - macula overview contributor: antonio p. viagra pills Ciardella  a macular hole is a retinal hole at the macula. A small percetage (5-15%) of  macular holes are caused by trauma; most are idiopathic and occur in the elderly, especially women. can you cut a 100 mg viagra in half Several theories have been proposed to account for their pathogenesis. Some suggest that they are preceded by a focal retinoschisis, degeneration of photoreceptors from a serous detachment of the macula, the coalescence of cystoid spaces or a combination of these alterations. generic viagra no rx  macular holes are classifiied into four different stages (stage 1, stage 2, stage 3 and stage 4). Stage 1 is an impending macular hole, stage 2 is an eccentric full-thickness macular hole, stage 3 is a full-thickness macular hole with a vitreofoveal detachment andstage 4 is a full-thicknes macular hole with a posterior vitreous detachment [vitreous detachment - posterior]. The differential diagnosis of macular holes and their precursors include an epiretinal membrane with a pseudohole, foveal detachment due to central serous choroidopathy, solar retinopathy and the vitreomacular traction syndrome. long term side effects viagra men The term ‘macular hole” is used to describe either a partial- or full thickness-hole in the foveolar area. The foveolar area is particularly susceptible to degeneration and hole formation because of its extreme thinness, avascularity and lack of support, which is provided elsewhere in the retina by müller cells and a relatively thick internal limiting membrane or basal lamina. cialis and viagra generic The firm attachment of the vitreous to the basal lamina in the perifoveal area is also important in the pathogenesis of hole formation in some cases. There are many causes of hole formation including myopic degeneration, chronic cystoid macular edema, vitreous traction, contraction of an epiretinal membrane, trauma, and solar retinopathy (foveomacular retinitis), but most of the time macular holes are idiopathic. Idiopathic senile macular hole is a disorder occurring in otherwise healthy individuals who are in their sixth decade of life or beyond and who have normal refractive errors. buy viagra in us Women are affected more commonly than men by a 2:1 ratio. The risk of bilateral involvement is 10-20%, but onset is rarely simultaneous. buy viagra online The incidence of macular holes is estimated 1 in 5,000 patients. much will viagra cost patent expires The presenting symptoms of macular holes are mild blurring of vision, metamorphopsia, and a negative scotoma early, often before the development of a hole. Photo. generic viagra canada electricasantaclara.es
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